The Bearded Dragon – Health & Common Diseases

Discover the secrets to keeping your bearded dragon in the best of health! From recognizing common diseases to expert tips on maintaining their well-being, we have you covered. Learn how to spot early signs of issues and ensure a happy, vibrant life for your scaly friend. Don't miss out on essential insights that will help you become the best caregiver for your bearded dragon.

The Bearded Dragon – Health & Common Diseases

As responsible reptile enthusiasts, ensuring the optimal health of your scaly friend is a top priority. In this blog, we will delve into common health concerns and diseases that can affect bearded dragons, shedding light on how to recognise, prevent, and address these issues effectively. Our aim is to provide you with comprehensive insights that combine professional expertise with a friendly approach, empowering you to provide the best possible care for your reptilian companion.


Bearded Dragon


How do I know if my bearded dragon is healthy and thriving?

By ensuring your bearded dragon receives the appropriate heat, UVB lighting, a well-balanced diet, proper hydration, and essential supplements, you're taking crucial steps to support their overall well-being. Equally important is creating an enriched and appropriately sized enclosure with substrate for digging and foraging, along with providing branches for climbing. These elements enable your dragon to exhibit natural behaviours, contributing to their happiness, health, and thriving lifestyle.


How often should I take my bearded dragon to a veterinarian for check-ups?

It's a good practice to schedule regular health checks with your Exotics Vet, ideally every 6 months to a year. During these visits, they can conduct thorough examinations, test for parasites, and address any potential health concerns that might arise. This proactive approach ensures your bearded dragon's well-being and allows you to catch and address any issues early on.

If you happen to notice any unusual behaviours, changes in appetite, or any other signs of discomfort or illness, it's important to schedule a vet appointment as soon as possible.


What should the humidity levels be for a healthy bearded dragon?

Maintaining a humidity level of around 30%-40% inside the enclosure is a key factor to consider. This helps to create a comfortable and suitable environment for your bearded dragon's overall health and well-being.


How can I prevent metabolic bone disease in my bearded dragon?

Ensuring your bearded dragon receives proper UVB lighting is crucial to prevent metabolic bone disease (MBD). Using the right UVB source, such as the Arcadia ProT5 (12% or 14%), positioned at the appropriate distance for your enclosure, and replacing it every 12 months, plays a significant role. This setup enables your bearded dragon to effectively utilise the calcium and vitamin D3 from their diet and supplements, contributing to their overall well-being.

Ensuring the right heat, proper diet, and, of course, a well-balanced supplement regime also play crucial roles. By offering a diverse diet of insects and greens, and following the recommended supplement schedule from HabiStat or Arcadia, you're taking proactive steps to minimize the risk of MBD and promote your bearded dragon's overall health.


What is brumation, and how do I know if my bearded dragon is entering this phase?

Brumation is a natural behaviour that bearded dragons exhibit in the wild during colder weather. In their natural habitat, reduced daylight hours mean less time for sunbathing, hunting, and digestion. During this period, they dig burrows and go into a state of dormancy for about 3-5 months, relying on stored fat reserves for sustenance. They emerge when warmer weather and longer daylight hours return. Even captive dragons may experience brumation when colder temperatures arrive. Signs include decreased appetite leading to a complete halt in eating and longer periods of sleep in the cooler part of their enclosure. If you notice these behaviours, it's a good idea to consult your exotics vet for a faecal test to rule out any illness before allowing brumation to take place.


Bearded Dragon


Are there specific dietary requirements to ensure the overall health of my bearded dragon?

Maintaining a well-rounded and diverse diet is crucial for the overall health and happiness of your bearded dragon. To ensure your dragon's well-being, it's important not to rely on only 1 or 2 types of feeder bug species. Variety matters – avoid limiting daily greens to just one type and exclude fruits. By incorporating a range of feeder bug species and rotating different greens, you not only promote good health but also reduce the chances of your dragon becoming a picky eater.

Overfeeding is a common concern when it comes to bearded dragon diets. Depending on the age, we recommend feeding young/juvenile dragons appropriately sized varied feeder bugs three times a week, alongside a daily serving of greens. For adults, offer several appropriately sized varied feeder bugs once a week and a daily bowl of greens, weeds, or flowers.

Proper supplementation is another key aspect. We advise following the HabiStat or Arcadia supplement regimen, which includes providing different supplements at various feeding stages to ensure optimal calcium, vitamin, and mineral intake. Always refer to the on-pack instructions for guidance. This balanced approach to diet and supplementation will contribute to your bearded dragon's overall vitality and well-being.


What should I do if my bearded dragon stops eating or has a decreased appetite?

Scheduling a health and parasite check with your exotics vet is a proactive step to ensure your bearded dragon's well-being. As long as you're maintaining a balanced diet and not overfeeding, and your dragon has an enriched enclosure with proper heat, temperature, and UVB conditions, you should see your dragon remaining active and engaged.

A decreased appetite might indicate an underlying illness or a parasite issue that warrants veterinary attention and appropriate treatment. Monitoring your dragon's behaviour and seeking professional advice when needed will help ensure your dragon's continued health and happiness.


How can I provide proper hydration to keep my bearded dragon healthy?

Hydration is essential for your bearded dragon's health, and they naturally obtain a significant portion of their hydration from consuming greens, weeds, and flowers, along with well-hydrated and gutloaded feeder bugs.

To provide additional hydration, ensure you place a small water bowl with fresh water in the cooler end of the enclosure. While you may not always catch your dragon drinking from the bowl, it's there as a resource if needed. Bearded dragons are designed to extract water from their food due to limited water sources in their natural habitat. Having water available in their enclosure provides them the opportunity to drink when required, contributing to their overall well-being.


How do I identify and treat respiratory infections in bearded dragons?

Respiratory infections can affect bearded dragons, often arising from factors that compromise their immune system or expose them to harmful pathogens. Factors such as incorrect temperature and humidity levels, inadequate ventilation, contaminated substrate, poor diet, unsanitary conditions, stress, or underlying health issues can contribute to these infections.

Recognising the symptoms of a respiratory infection is crucial. Watch out for signs like laboured or noisy breathing, open-mouth breathing, excessive mucus or bubbles, loss of appetite, lethargy, coughing, sneezing, a puffed-up appearance, reduced activity, or discharge from the eyes or nose.

Should your bearded dragon display any of these symptoms, seeking veterinary assistance is essential. Treatment typically involves a prescribed oral antibiotic, administered as directed by your vet. With timely and appropriate care, your dragon can recover from a respiratory infection and resume a healthy and active life.


Are there any first aid measures I can take at home for minor health concerns?

For minor health concerns, the best approach is prevention. Ensuring proper hygiene by regularly cleaning and sanitising food and water bowls, feeding equipment, and enclosure décor is crucial. Using a reptile-safe disinfectant like HabiStat Bactericidal Cleaner can help maintain a clean and healthy environment for your bearded dragon.


What are the appropriate ways to handle and administer medication to a sick bearded dragon?

Your exotics vet will guide you on the proper technique for holding and administering the specific medication your bearded dragon needs. They can provide you with the necessary instructions to ensure your pet's well-being and comfort.


How can I promote proper shedding and address issues if my bearded dragon has difficulties?

The primary reason for shedding difficulties often stems from a lack of essential nutrition. Ensuring a diverse diet and following the appropriate supplement regimen, such as those offered by HabiStat or Arcadia, plays a crucial role in promoting healthy shedding.
To assist your dragon during the shedding process, they typically rely on rubbing against rocks, logs, and branches, as well as digging in their substrate. Offering these options within their enclosure is vital to support their natural shedding behaviour.
Should shedding problems persist, it's advisable to seek guidance from your exotic vet for proper assistance and care.


Bearded Dragon


What are the potential risks of impaction, and how can I prevent it in my bearded dragon?

The most prevalent causes of impaction are related to food (either excessive feeding or insufficient digestion time) and substrate usage.
When feeding your dragon, ensure that they have approximately 4 hours of access to basking time after a meal for optimal digestion. Although they might not bask for the entire duration, it's important to provide them with the opportunity to digest their food for at least 4 hours after eating. Inadequate digestion time can lead to digestive problems, including impaction.
Overfeeding can also result in impaction, as the dragon may struggle to digest an excessive amount of food.
Substrate-related impaction often arises due to environmental shortcomings within the enclosure or diet. This can stem from factors such as incorrect heat, UVB lighting, diet, or supplements. Reassessing and making necessary adjustments to the current setup can help resolve these issues.
Of course, it's also worth considering that there might be other health-related factors contributing to the problem. If you encounter any issues, don't hesitate to reach out to your exotic veterinarian for valuable advice and assistance.


How can I create a stress-free environment to maintain the overall health of my bearded dragon?

Provided that your bearded dragon resides in an enclosure that meets or exceeds the minimum recommended size (48x24x24) and is equipped with appropriate heat, UVB lighting, substrate, and enriching decor (such as rocks, logs, and branches), you're on the right track to ensuring their well-being. A diverse diet consisting of feeder bugs and vegetation, coupled with a suitable supplement regimen, will contribute to their overall health. Remember to position the dragon's enclosure in a way that minimizes its visibility to other animals, as this can help reduce unnecessary stress. Your efforts in creating an ideal environment will greatly benefit your bearded dragon's quality of life.


What steps should I take if I suspect my bearded dragon is sick, and when is it necessary to consult a veterinarian?

If you observe any changes in your bearded dragon's behaviour or notice any visual differences, the best course of action is to consult with your exotics veterinarian. They have the expertise to assess the situation and provide guidance on any necessary steps to ensure the health and well-being of your beloved reptile companion. Don't hesitate to reach out for professional assistance whenever you have concerns about your bearded dragon's condition.


Common Diseases


Metabolic bone disease

Metabolic bone disease in bearded dragons can develop due to various factors, primarily related to improper husbandry and diet. Namely Inadequate Calcium Intake, Insufficient UVB Exposure (vitamin D3), poor diet, Inadequate Heating & Lack of Exercise.

Symptoms - Weak or wobbly limbs, difficulty shedding, swollen or enlarged jaw, lethargy or lack of appetite, tremors or seizures or difficulty breathing.


Respiratory infections

Bearded dragons can develop respiratory infections due to various factors that weaken their immune system or expose them to pathogens. Can be caused by incorrect temperature and humidity, poor ventilation, contaminated substrate, poor diet, unsanitary conditions, stress, or possible underlying health conditions.

Symptoms - Laboured or noisy breathing, open-mouth breathing, excessive mucus or bubbles, lack of appetite, lethargy, coughing or sneezing, puffed-up appearance, decreased activity or eye or nose discharge.



Bearded dragons can acquire internal or external parasites through various means. Commonly ingestion of contaminated food or water, contaminated enclosure, ingesting infected insects, contact with infected animals, handling, or exposure to wild-caught insects.

Internal parasites include coccidia, pinworm, flagellates.

External parasites include mites, ticks or fleas.

Respiratory Parasites include cryptosporidium.

Plus, roundworms.

Symptoms – Lethargy, loss of appetite, weight loss, dull or unhealthy skin, pale or darkened gums, diarrhoea or regurgitation. Also, visible parasites such as worms, protozoa in faeces or mites, ticks or lice might be visible on the skin or scales.



Impaction in a bearded dragon refers to a condition where the digestive tract becomes blocked or obstructed by an indigestible material, commonly causing constipation or even more severe health issues. This can occur when a bearded dragon ingests objects or substances that are too large, hard, or undigestible to pass through their digestive system. Impaction can lead to discomfort, pain, and potentially life-threatening complications if not addressed promptly.

Symptoms - Infrequent or absent bowel movements, straining, swollen belly, lethargy, unusual posture, vocalisation of discomfort or pain or showing agitation.


Mouth rot

Mouth rot, (Infectious Stomatitis or Oral Ulceration), is a bacterial infection that affects the mouth and oral tissues of bearded dragons and other reptiles. It is a serious condition that can cause pain, discomfort, and other health issues if left untreated. Mouth rot is often caused by a combination of factors, including poor husbandry, stress, and a weakened immune system.

Symptoms - Swelling or inflammation of the gums, tongue, or oral tissues. Redness or discoloration of the mouth, excessive salivation or drooling, difficulty opening or closing the mouth, loss of appetite or reluctance to eat, discharge or pus around the mouth & rubbing the face against objects or scratching at the mouth.


Ensuring the health and well-being of your bearded dragon involves a combination of factors that contribute to their overall happiness and vitality. By providing the right habitat conditions, proper diet, hydration, and supplements, as well as monitoring their behavior and seeking veterinary care when needed, you're setting the foundation for a thriving and contented pet. Remember that every bearded dragon is unique, and paying attention to their individual needs and behaviours is key to maintaining their health. Your commitment to creating a suitable environment and promptly addressing any concerns will undoubtedly contribute to the longevity and quality of life for your scaly friend.


Bearded Dragon


Don't forget to check our detailed care sheet on the bearded dragon & additional helpful articles from Reptili! 


Image Credits 


Diana Orey

David Clode


Subscribe to our mailing list, for all the latest Reptili news!